Technology and IT Job Descriptions

Having access to accurate job descriptions is essential whether you’re an employer looking to staff open IT jobs or a technology professional on the hunt for a new position. For hiring managers, IT job descriptions form the basis of the job posting and are used throughout the candidate evaluation process. For job seekers, IT job descriptions provide a window into the expectations employers have for a certain position.

The following glossary of technology job descriptions provides a detailed overview of the educational requirements, expected skills and experience, and typical duties for a wide range of IT jobs, including developer jobs, help desk jobs, network administrator jobs and many others.

Application development
Consulting and systems integration
Data/database administration
Quality assurance (QA) and testing
Software development
Technical services, help desk and technical support
Web development


Chief Information Officer (CIO)

CIOs plan, organize, direct and control an organization’s information technology goals. They apply strong strategic planning, communication and analytic skills in implementing computer systems and ensure the effective, efficient and secure operation of all automated data processing systems. They must collaborate effectively with other senior managers in defining, articulating and championing the firm’s IT requirements. A bachelor’s degree in computer science, information systems or a related area is expected, and a master’s degree is often required by employers. CIOs typically have at least seven years of managerial experience in all phases of computer operations, though larger firms may require more.

Typical duties include:

  • Overseeing the maintenance of efficient, reliable computer service; support training; and innovation of all technology systems throughout the organization — all within budget
  • Developing, motivating and directing the firm’s IT staff and computer systems to uphold company, client and employee information security
  • Working closely with other senior management to coordinate and enforce data systems policies and procedures

Chief Security Officer (CSO)

CSOs oversee measures to protect a company’s physical and digital security and provide safeguards for a firm’s employees, facilities and assets. Qualified candidates possess extensive experience in the field of information security, loss prevention, fraud prevention and privacy, as well as demonstrated skills in business continuity and disaster recovery planning. Keen networking and communication skills and accountability are required to lead information security initiatives and for client interfacing. Employers look for candidates who can develop strategic plans and gain buy-in from key stakeholders for the firm’s cybersecurity initiatives to better serve the firm and its clients. Compliance- and security-related certifications are required in addition to a bachelor’s degree in information systems or a related field and 10 or more years’ experience with a focus on information systems privacy.

Typical duties include:

  • Managing enterprise-wide security policies and systems
  • Developing and implementing long-term information security and privacy strategy, business continuity, and disaster recovery plans
  • Ensuring the company, its vendors and contractors meet all mandated security and compliance standards
  • Recommending security enhancements to leadership team

Chief Technology Officer (CTO)

CTOs require in-depth knowledge of all aspects of a firm’s data technology infrastructure. Known for their technical expertise and tactical managerial skills, CTOs evaluate new technology and decide how it can benefit their organization and its clients. They oversee the design of — and make recommendations to executive management regarding — technology solutions to uphold the policies and instruction provided by the CIO. CTOs collaborate with various departments to execute the company’s technology vision. CTO candidates typically have a degree in computer science (some firms prefer candidates with an MBA) or a related field and at least 10 years of experience in IT management and strategy. Candidates need excellent interpersonal and problem-solving skills, as well as the ability to plan and complete projects within time and budget constraints.

Typical duties include:

  • Daily oversight, planning, design and delivery of technology initiatives
  • Implementing technology and cybersecurity policies and procedures
  • Developing network and systems architectures for presentation to senior management
  • Collaborating with the CIO and other departments to develop strategies and budgets and insure optimal performance of networks and systems operations
  • Assisting with disaster recovery planning, implementation and execution

Director of Technology

Technology directors oversee the infrastructure of all company technical operations. They are responsible for developing and leading the IT strategies and solutions that align with the strategic plan of the company, including leading, directing and managing a technology team. In addition, the director of technology is responsible for ensuring the IT platform is in compliance with regulatory practices, eliminating security risks and increasing customer satisfaction. These professionals are responsible for the acquisition, operation, integration and problem-solving aspects of hardware and software systems. Excellent communication and interpersonal skills are required, in addition to the ability to identify and propose new IT business processes. Five to 10 years of experience in IT management and a bachelor’s degree in programming, computer science or a related field are generally required. Project management certifications and/or a master’s degree in business administration are highly recommended.

Typical duties include:

  • Developing and overseeing an organization’s long-range technology function and evaluating it according to multiteam goals
  • Creating and executing new technology strategies
  • Hiring and managing IT staff
  • Directing the effective delivery of networks, development, and disaster recovery systems and processes

Vice President of Information Technology

The vice president of IT provides strategic planning and leadership for developing, implementing and maintaining information technology initiatives across the organization. The position requires a proven track record in enterprise IT systems and web applications management, plus excellent communication, analytical and organizational skills. These professionals must foster innovation that creates a competitive advantage; enhances the customer experience; improves service quality; supports business development; and improves cost effectiveness, productivity and efficiency. Most companies require a master’s degree in computer science or information technology and 10 years’ experience managing and/or directing an IT operation, including experience in strategic planning and execution. Some companies require an MBA.

Typical duties include:

  • Managing the overall tactical operations of the IT department to ensure users’ needs are met and data is processed according to company requirements
  • Advocating for the organization’s IT vision via regular communications with the organization’s executives, division and department heads, and end users
  • Directing continuous improvement of the information systems staff, equipment, and procedures to maintain pace with technological progress, economic change and business needs

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Applications development

Applications Architect

Applications architects require a high level of technical expertise combined with excellent planning, coordination and communication skills, as well as the ability to work in teams. These professionals are responsible for designing, developing and implementing applications for a company’s computer systems. They must have experience with relevant development tools and specific application and system architectures and guide the development process from beginning to end. Practitioners oversee the work of the entire IT team and must be appreciative of the needs of the user and translate them into flow charts for programmers to code. The buck truly stops with this function. These professionals are responsible for ensuring that the final product meets user expectations and company standards.

Typical duties include:

  • Overseeing the application development team in identifying solution frameworks and high-level designs that align with end-user needs and company goals
  • Communicating systems application strategies, roadmaps, and reference architectures to the technical team and executives to improve company capabilities and growth strategy
  • Providing documentation, training and support to the organization to ensure the highest level of application design standards and security

Business Systems Analyst

Business systems analysts should take a bird’s-eye view of the operation, identifying key areas of growth and development. Using current- and future-state process models to support the business line and its suite of products and related systems, the BSA gathers, analyzes, prepares and summarizes business needs, documenting requirements and revising existing system and process logic issues. Practitioners must have a technical and project management background and finance understanding to communicate with C-Suite company representatives, in addition to strong interpersonal skills to work in a team environment and foster client relationships. A bachelor’s degree is strongly preferred. Excellent understanding of Microsoft Office products, Visio and the software development lifecycle are musts, as is experience working with SQL for querying data.

Typical duties include:

  • Analyzing complex business problems and assessing how automated systems can solve them
  • Translating business requirements into highly specified project requirements
  • Architecting cost-effective solutions and opportunities of varying complexity by collaborating with business and technical associates
  • Leading regulatory and compliance activities and software procurement

Cloud Computing Analyst

Candidates for cloud computing analyst positions must be innovative thinkers, with excellent analysis, communication and problem-solving skills. The position requires strategic knowledge of most cloud computing technology and providers, including Platform as a Service (PaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS), and/or Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), and the skills to form those clouds to fit company needs. AWS skills lead by a large margin, followed by those requiring Google and Microsoft expertise. A degree in information technology, computer science or related field is required, along with five or more years of progressive experience in information systems with an understanding of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems and knowledge of integrated business and systems processes.

Typical duties include:

  • Planning and engineering a company’s cloud computing techniques, technologies and architectures, as well as providing expert advice to company leaders
  • Creating and maintaining public, private and hybrid cloud systems
  • Supporting a range of clients from front-line analysts to researchers and senior leadership
  • Working as a key contributor on a collaborative, fast-growing and highly skilled software development team
  • Keeping up with cloud technology trends and advancements

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Business Analyst

CRM business analysts are relied upon for their analytical and problem-solving capabilities, as well as extensive technical and functional experience to cultivate a positive customer relationship. They are expected to analyze customer data and offer recommendations on sales, marketing and customer service initiatives. Liaisons between IT and business groups, these professionals are expected to master the project life cycle from initiation to customer delivery, including solution consulting, production support, product ownership and mentoring. Strong interpersonal and communication skills are essential, as is knowledge of analytical or database software, particularly CRM or business intelligence systems. A bachelor’s degree or the equivalent work experience is required, in addition to four or more years of experience in business analysis.

Typical duties include:

  • Creating innovative and highly usable solutions for business, technical and functional goals
  • Working closely with the development team to test and implement solutions for efficiency, stability and increased process performance
  • Acting as a liaison in resolving customer issues by partnering with other service and technical teams
  • Providing advice to business and technology teams on CRM best practices

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Technical Developer

Candidates for CRM technical developer design and advance integrations and customizations for CRM solutions. They are expected to work creatively and analytically with other development staff and system and database administrators to ensure enterprise applications meet the needs of the business. Strong interpersonal and communication skills are expected. An outstanding employee in this role develops and maintains knowledge of a customer's business through a mix of project work, collaborating with business users and seeking out learning opportunities. A bachelor’s degree in computer science and appropriate technical experience is typically required. Employers seek candidates with five or more years’ experience with CRM solutions (e.g., Oracle, Microsoft, SAP).

Typical duties include:

  • Designing, developing and implementing customized software with a team to address specific business processes
  • Utilizing standardized and proprietary development and testing methodologies to understand the current system or new requirements, simplify processes, and identify and document functions needed for a new system
  • Providing — as a team leader — end-user training and support
  • Drawing on tools such as SSIS and Scribe, .NET/C# Development and JavaScript

Developer/Programmer Analyst

Developer/programmer analysts formulate and define scope of systems and objectives with an understanding of software and applications programming and industry requirements. They provide recommendations for developing or modifying applications, code, programs or databases, using research and fact-finding, ensuring that the delivered product meets the user's expectations. They must operate from both a technical/programming perspective and a business point of view and communicate strategies and solutions with non-technical team members. They are sleuths in catching bugs in the software. Excellent programming abilities in common languages and frameworks, such as COBOL, Java, C, C++, C#, Java Enterprise Edition/AJAX and Microsoft .NET is a must. Most employers look for at least a bachelor’s degree in computer science, information science or management information systems and relevant job experience.

Typical duties include:

  • Analyzing business application requirements for functional areas such as finance, manufacturing, marketing or human resources
  • Writing code and testing and debugging software applications
  • Architecting and designing technical solutions to solve business challenges
  • Documenting software specifications and training users

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Business Analyst

ERP business analysts must demonstrate business acumen in managing relationships and project lists with colleagues in technical and business departments, driving software solutions, leading users and helping them resolve issues, and promoting an environment focused on knowledge growth and independence. Specific technical requirements vary by employer, but strong technical and functional knowledge of the employer’s preferred ERP solutions, analytic aptitude, and good oral and written communication skills are a must. Candidates also should have a thorough understanding of business processes, as well as an IT- or business-related bachelor’s degree.

Typical duties include:

  • Providing detailed ERP systems requirements for product development, evaluating development projects and tailoring the development process to meet project needs
  • Performing direct application support for ERP systems where necessary and updating and maintaining system configuration, setup and application
  • Writing and executing functional test plans to ensure ERP system changes or custom development changes are operating accordingly, adjacent processes are unaffected, and users’ requirements are met
  • Creating documentation such as policies, procedures, workflows and user guides

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Technical Developer

ERP technical developers craft, implement and modify applications using multiple ERP modules and gather and interpret functional specifications and user requirements to determine feasibility of design, on deadline and within budget. They develop software solutions; design software for client use; modify software systems, using analytic skills and mathematical models to anticipate and measure outcomes and consequences of design; store, retrieve, and manipulate data for analysis of system capabilities and requirements; design and develop conversion programs to import data from legacy systems and integrate it into new applications using open interfaces and APIs; perform unit and software system testing and validation; and provide production support using the employer’s existing ERP solutions and related applications. A bachelor’s degree in a technical or business-related field or equivalent experience is generally required.

Typical duties include:

  • Performing analysis, design, coding, data migration and testing for ERP production and development environments
  • Designing, developing and implementing custom-designed software to create innovative business processes
  • Working with a team to identify, evaluate, select, implement and maintain ERP system components for business needs
  • Providing end-user training and support

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Technical/Functional Analyst

ERP technical/functional analysts collaborate with business partners to examine, design and implement robust employer solutions; document system requirements; develop functional design documentation; configure solutions; and ensure thorough unit/integration testing to meet customer expectations. These professionals must have excellent problem-solving techniques, as they partner with IT colleagues to develop and implement new solutions to help optimize company processes, resulting in efficiencies and cost savings. A bachelor’s degree in a computer-related field is typically required. Additional technical requirements vary by position but often include multiple years of experience working closely with the employer’s preferred ERP solutions.

Typical duties include:

  • Providing direction and support to team members to ensure work efforts deliver the highest business value and/or reduce IT support burden
  • Optimizing the effectiveness of the ERP system through workflow analysis, data collection/reporting and end-user training, with a focus on process improvement
  • Creating effective technical reports (automated and on-demand), simulations, and instructional manuals to document systems development and offer ERP software upgrade recommendations
  • Assisting application owners in the development of test scripts, policies and procedures

Lead Application Developer

Lead application developers are responsible for directing the development team in applications programming. This professional wears the hats of creator, leader and mentor. Individuals in this role coordinate staff schedules and promote effective team communication. As lead, they offer guidance for process and product improvement. Individuals in this role also work closely with other managers to plan and implement technology projects. Employers look for a bachelor’s degree in computer science or a related field, along with a solid background in applications programming; proven success as a team leader; and at least three years of experience in technologies such as Visual Basic, .NET, PHP, C#/C++ and Microsoft .NET framework development.

Typical duties include:

  • Directing the development team in the design, initiation, coding, testing and debugging of applications
  • Coordinating the effective use of the development team’s time and ensuring efficient communication between team members and other functional IT areas
  • Providing feedback and suggestions for process and product improvement and acting as a technical mentor and adviser
  • Working with management to prioritize resource needs while simultaneously directing and motivating staff

Manager of Application Development

Managers of application development lead a team of application developers, IT business analysts and IT developers in defining detailed business requirements to support strategic goals. A strong technical background is required along with exceptional decision-making, problem solving and leadership skills. They oversee applications program design, development and implementation in coordination with other managers and executives; resolve gaps in skills, processes and resources; set deadlines; assign responsibilities; mentor, and monitor the team; develop guidelines; create budgets; and build relationships with vendors and external teams. Employers look for a bachelor’s degree in a technical field, four years of technical experience and two to three years of experience managing a development team.

Typical duties include:

  • Directing all aspects of the application development department and its staff
  • Designing development and systems analysis to create new applications or install and implement software purchased from vendors
  • Evaluating applications programs to ensure efficiency and documentation and that output meets the needs of user and business goals
  • Serving as a liaison to both technical and non-technical staff at all levels of the organization and offering solutions

Mobile Application Developer

Mobile application developers collaborate with designers, front-end developers and product stakeholders to deliver technical solutions to difficult or complex issues. They need strong analytical, interpersonal and problem-solving skills as they develop mobile applications for multiple platforms to build market penetration and return on investment. Mobile developers write programs using .NET and HTML, Objective C, C++, C# or Java programming languages. A mobile app developer selects the operating system they will develop for, such as Google's Android or Apple's iOS, then masters the programming languages and software development environment for that platform. A degree in computer science or another analytical discipline is typically required, along with two years of hands-on software engineering in a production environment.

Typical duties include:

  • Coding, testing, debugging, monitoring and documenting mobile applications
  • Working with different departments to brainstorm and optimize deployments
  • Migrating and adapting existing web applications to the leading mobile platforms
  • Recommending changes and enhancements to existing mobile applications and developing project schedules and workflows

Project Manager

IT project managers provide strategic leadership and planning for program and portfolio management, aligning skills and resources, as well as monitoring, managing, and controlling company projects. They exercise independent judgment in overseeing system development and implementation according to prescribed methodology and standards. The job requires knowledge of the policies, methods, and procedures of the company and of the fields of information technology and project management. Incumbents coordinate or oversee the activities of other employees, identifying, prioritizing, authorizing, managing, and controlling projects and programs to achieve strategic business objectives. Employers look for a bachelor’s degree in an IT- or business-related field, a background in application development, and five or more years of experience managing complex projects.

Typical duties include:

  • Managing large, long-range or multiple complex IT application development projects
  • Setting project scope, priorities, deadlines and deliverables schedules
  • Facilitating discussions and consensus among various project stakeholders, such as analysts, applications programmers and clients
  • Managing and monitoring project budgets and expenditures

Systems Analyst

Systems analysts translate business requirements into technical solutions. They must be effective analytical thinkers, problem solvers and communicators. These professionals apply methods such as data modeling to view processes and data flows even before programs have been written. They conduct in-depth tests and analyze information and data trends to boost a system’s efficiency. Systems analysts oversee vendor solutions and advise business leaders in the development, maintenance and improvement of hardware and software systems for the company. A bachelor’s degree in a computer or information science field is common, although some firms hire analysts with an equivalent combination of education and two to four years’ experience in information technology or computer programming, including supervision of others or lead responsibilities.

Typical duties include:

  • Analyzing systems hardware and software in comparison with emerging technologies to increase the firm’s efficiency and effectiveness
  • Overseeing the installation and testing of new systems and translating user and/or systems requirements into functional technical specifications
  • Developing and managing internal procedures, tools, and documents to provide a high level of application integrity and availability and to ensure timely, effective support

Technical Writer

Technical writers must interpret complex issues and communicate information to broad audiences clearly and concisely. Through developing an appreciation of the needs of end users, technical writers may help improve the design of a product in the prototype stage. Technical writers develop relationships across divisions and conduct research with the help of technical specialists to produce instruction manuals, how-to guides, journal articles and other company communications that are consistent and easily understood. As more companies use social media to convey messaging to clients and employees, technical writers are called upon to incorporate graphics, multidimensional images, sound and video into their work. Usually a bachelor’s degree in a communications or technical discipline, or several years’ experience in a technical role is required.

Typical duties include:

  • Synthesizing and clearly summarizing the specifications, design, features and operation of company applications
  • Writing and developing user manuals, help systems and other technical documents for ease of use
  • Working with technical staff, software applications and equipment to provide engaging content with photography, video, graphics and social media

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Consulting and systems integration

Director (Consulting and Systems Integration)

This director has a significant and growing knowledge base and grasp of software services solutions, industry best practices, enterprise processes and technology plans over a range of IT initiatives and client priorities. The director sits at the leading edge of technology and influences the company in its design of innovative solutions that meet customer objectives and create change in the industry. The role requires a seasoned professional with creativity and independent judgment, interpersonal skills and business acumen. Candidates need strong project management experience, the ability to monitor and manage multiple initiatives concurrently, knowledge of competitive and partner products, sales and negotiation and excellent team management skills. Employers often seek a bachelor’s degree or the equivalent in education and experience; advanced degree and certification a plus. Also, 10 or more years’ experience in consulting, technology and project management.

Typical duties include:

  • Managing, guiding, and directing practice strategy, tactics and goals, integration of cloud-based solutions, business intelligence and reporting
  • Cultivating relations with clients' senior-level managers; offering recommendations for the firm’s growth
  • Providing leadership in solutions design, evaluation, staff development, implementation, and effective operations

IT Auditor

IT auditors are responsible for performing detailed evaluation and internal control and audit reviews of computer information systems. They must have broad knowledge of the technical framework and intricate components of computer systems, as well as leadership experience overseeing teams working on a variety of platforms, such as operating systems, networks, databases and enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. The role requires strong mentoring, collaborating and communication skills, as well as acquiring audit certifications and knowledge of current technological developments and trends. Employers typically seek at least a bachelor’s degree in information technology, information systems, accounting or business administration. Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) is the broadly accepted standard certification for IT auditors.

Typical duties include:

  • Testing and evaluating IT systems for conformity with industry standards of efficiency, accuracy and security, and creating an action plan to prevent security breaches in the technology
  • Offering recommendations and staff training for systems operations and process improvements
  • Planning and executing internal audit procedures; presenting audit reports — in compliance with statutory requirements and regulations — in a clear, accurate and concise manner

Project Manager/Senior Consultant

Project managers/senior consultants guide —with independence and discretion — multiple complex projects, teams and initiatives to achieve business strategies and objectives. They have excellent subject-matter knowledge and communication, interpersonal and supervisorial skills. They shine in program management, from conception and design through implementation, measurement and continuous improvement, and regularly contribute to improving internal services and efficiencies. Employers seek a bachelor’s degree in computer science, management or an IT-related discipline, four years of demonstrated expertise leading complex team initiatives, and a strong knowledge of technology and the IT services industry.

Typical duties include:

  • Developing project plans, executing deliverables and proactively identifying and managing risks and issues
  • Defining project scope and creating a milestone and deadline list for delivery
  • Coordinating with cross-functional team leaders and monitoring and reporting on project status
  • Communicating project progress, findings, output and deployment plans to senior leadership and all constituents
  • Providing mentoring, coaching, support and guidance to project participants on policies and procedures, priorities and methods

Senior IT Auditor

Drawing on their in-depth knowledge of business processes, senior IT auditors are responsible for developing and managing complex audits of an organization’s information systems. They develop the framework for audits, set objectives and provide test procedures that address key controls and risks. The role demands a tactical level of experience to drive IT compliance efforts and strong interpersonal skills to build relationships and earn the trust of clients and peers. These professionals have experience working with a variety of technology platforms and must be familiar with performing network, web, database and technical audits. A bachelor’s degree in information systems management, computer science, business or a related field is required in addition to an average of four years’ experience in IT auditing. A Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA), Certified Information Security Manager (CISM) or similar designation is strongly preferred.

Typical duties include:

  • Assessing business systems/processes to identify key control points and risks
  • Establishing objectives and procedures for audit review of computer systems
  • Implementing testing and evaluation plans and controls to gauge conformity with industry standards and laws
  • Using narrative and/or flowcharting techniques to present findings and recommendations to senior management

Staff Consultant

Information technology consultants understand customer requirements and business objectives. They bring strong analytical, problem-solving and negotiation skills for integrating information technology systems into the business, plus an ability to explain the benefits to clients in an approachable manner. They have a demonstrated history of managing IT initiatives and collaborating with in-house technical staff, resolving technical problems and providing training to users to maximize the value of technology in business. A minimum of a bachelor’s degree in computer science, business or a field related to the area of consulting is expected, as well as experience with various operating systems and databases. Familiar fields of specialization include Java, web analytics, security, data management, infrastructure, mobile technology, risk management, storage and backup.

Typical duties include:

  • Applying project-planning skills to extract the best from technology to achieve client goals
  • Creating software development processes to troubleshoot system problems and effect solution implementation
  • Communicating constructively with in-house technical staff and clients about key initiatives and providing training to ensure stakeholders get the full benefit of the technological tools

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Data/database administration

Big Data Engineer

Big data engineers are liaisons between business users and data scientists. They are designers and curators of databases and know how to get results from vast amounts of data quickly. They have impeccable data mining, strategic and communication skills, as they interpret business objectives and translate them into data-processing workflows. They develop, maintain, test, and evaluate software platforms and large-scale data processing systems within organizations, ensuring that data pipelines are scalable, efficient and secure. A big data engineer must have considerable expertise in statistics software engineering, building high-performance algorithms and programming, ideally in Python or Java and NoSQL technologies. The role requires coding expertise and enterprise architecture and data science knowledge. Employers often require a bachelor’s degree in a related field and four to six years of experience.

Typical duties include:

  • Gathering, storing and processing raw data and translating analyses for acquisition and integration
  • Applying technologies to solve big data problems and develop innovative big data solutions
  • Performing end-user analysis to formulate a clear understanding of the business needs and incorporate these needs into technical solutions

Business Intelligence Analyst

Business intelligence analysts maintain robust business intelligence tools, databases, dashboards, systems and methods. Candidates need a strong background in database technology, ERP systems and processes, with an emphasis on the use of analytical and reporting tools. They work closely with all levels of employees and must have excellent written and oral communication, research, and analytic abilities to convert functional requirements into technical solutions. Expertise in BI, T-SQL, and SQL server, Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) and data cube technology are preferred. Employers seek a bachelor’s degree in computer science, information systems or engineering, as well as several years of experience in the business intelligence reporting and analytics area.

Typical duties include:

  • Designing and developing enterprise-wide data analysis and reporting solutions
  • Providing oversight of project plans, fulfillment of tasks, budgeting, and evaluating training and testing compliance
  • Analyzing data from multiple internal and external sources
  • Assuring the integrity of project data, including data extraction, storage, manipulation, processing and analysis
  • Communicating analysis results and making recommendations to senior management

Data Analyst/Report Writer

Data analysts/report writers are responsible for helping extract an organization's technical data in a way that is meaningful to business decision makers. Typical duties include analysis of complex data systems and documenting data elements, data flow, relationships and dependencies. Candidates need quantitative, teamwork and problem-solving abilities, as well as a thorough knowledge of relational database theory and practice. An understanding of the Microsoft stack of technologies and the Microsoft .NET development system can be helpful. Experience with Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle or IBM DB2 is also important. Written and verbal communication skills are key for any analyst because they need to clearly explain their findings to nontechnical team members. Employers look for a bachelor’s degree in computer science, information systems or a related field.

Typical duties include:

  • Collaborating with business analysts, data architects, data scientists and database developers to build data extraction, transaction and warehousing systems
  • Developing automated and reusable routines for extracting requested information from database systems
  • Compiling detailed reports using data reporting tools such as Crystal Reports and making recommendations based on the findings

Data Architect

Data architects must be able to understand and evaluate business requirements and translate that information into specific database solutions. Drawing on their knowledge of network management, distributed databases and processing, application architecture, and performance management, they ensure an organization’s data is properly assembled and available when needed and that data centers are secure, co-located and accessible. The role requires strong analytical and creative skills, along with in-depth knowledge of data systems and database methodology, design and modeling. Strong communication skills are needed in order to plan and coordinate data resources. Employers generally seek a bachelor’s degree in computer science or a related field, as well as experience with Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server or other databases in various operating system environments, such as Unix, Linux, Solaris and Microsoft Windows.

Typical duties include:

  • Creating and maintaining conceptual, logical and physical data models supporting information requirements
  • Presenting recommendations based on data trends for process improvement, revenue increase and loss reduction
  • Developing and maintaining a report catalog
  • Advising users on how to access, run and read reports
  • Ensuring that all data structures and systems are optimized for speed

Data Modeler

Data modelers study an organization’s computer systems and procedures and design or fine-tune enterprise databases to help the organization operate more effectively. Using strong oral and written communication skills, they help other IT team members understand how those systems can best serve an organization. Analysts encourage team effort in solving problems that arise along the way. Candidates should be familiar with data modeling tools and methodologies and be knowledgeable in database system applications, stored procedures and data warehousing. Employers normally require a bachelor’s degree in computer science, IT or mathematics, in addition to a minimum of three years’ experience with data modeling tools and principles and related configuration management concepts.

Typical duties include:

  • Understanding and explaining business needs expressed in data models supporting long-term solutions
  • Working with key project stakeholders to implement data strategies, build data flows and develop conceptual data models
  • Creating relevant data models using accepted professional procedures to ensure high data quality and limit redundancy
  • Optimizing and updating logical and physical data models to support new and emerging projects

Data Reporting Analyst

Data reporting analysts provide advanced insight and decision support for business operations. They scrutinize and assemble raw data from multiple sources, generate reports, automate best practices and build dashboards that facilitate efficiency, profit gains and productivity. They exploit the best available software, including MS Excel, Access, SQL, and/or other data warehouse analytical tools. Companies seek candidates with excellent analytical and problem-solving skills; a bachelor’s degree in computer science, information systems or business analytics; and at least four years’ experience in statistical analysis. Basic understanding of ERP systems, the ability to query data from a SQL database and working experience with T-SQL are preferred. Data reporting analysts show strengths in providing unbiased commentary and insight into data and aiding colleagues in decision-making processes based upon their analysis.

Typical duties include:

  • Understanding, interpreting and applying business rules to ensure a high level of data integrity and consistency
  • Engaging and consulting with team members on new data, business needs and opportunities to improve system effectiveness
  • Navigating complex customer data sources to retrieve relevant business information and produce better client results

Data Scientist

Data scientists develop innovative solutions to business challenges by applying their mathematical and analytical skills to detect patterns in very large datasets. Their work improves the performance of information systems and databases and leads to technological advancements and efficiencies, such as better networking technology, faster computing speeds and improved data security. Candidates must have strong analytical, data mining, multivariate statistical modeling and quantitative analysis skills, as well as experience in programming languages — commonly Python or Java — and writing SQL queries for data manipulation. Most employers require five to 10 years’ experience in computer science or information systems, as well as a bachelor’s degree, master’s degree or PhD in a quantitative discipline.

Typical duties include:

  • Developing and executing technical visions, including planning, technical decision making and project management in order to support business decisions and company growth
  • Presenting complex analyses as action-oriented recommendations
  • Managing and merging data from multiple sources and generating reports
  • Reviewing applications, data sets and models for anomalies to ensure accuracy
  • Applying effective algorithms to large-scale data modeling

Data Warehouse Analyst

Data warehouse analysts collect, analyze, mine and help businesses leverage the information stored in data warehouses. Professionals in this role research and recommend technology solutions related to data storage, reporting, importing and other business concerns. They also define the user interfaces for managing the interaction between data repositories. They collaborate with business intelligence analysts and developers to translate data requirements into logical data models and must have excellent research, analysis and problem-solving skills, as well as strong communication abilities. Prerequisites include a bachelor’s degree in computer science or a related field; extensive knowledge of relational database theory; and three to five years of work experience in database systems, data modeling and architecture.

Typical duties include:

  • Implementing formulas that strengthen, streamline and automate the management of data warehouse systems
  • Troubleshooting and running basic cause analyses of application problems
  • Working with business analysts to translate data requirements into logical data models
  • Ensuring reliability as data moves across the infrastructure
  • Collaborating with enterprise support teams

Database Administrator

Database administrators design databases tailored to a company's needs and ensure they operate efficiently and securely. They bring a strong technical foundation in database configuration, installation and maintenance, as well as solid communication skills. They manage all database development phases from procurement to implementation and seek effective solutions for improving speed and performance. Employers generally require a bachelor's degree in a computer-related field and four or more years’ experience in database, production and on-call environments. Knowledge and experience in major relational database languages such as MySQL Database Administrator, Oracle DBA, Microsoft Certified Database Administrator and IBM DB2 are often required.

Typical duties include:

  • Implementing the overall design, monitoring and optimizing of company databases
  • Planning the logical storage structure of the database and backup processes for servers and associated data
  • Monitoring and maintaining system health and security and the performance of the database during data access operations
  • Providing technical support and problem resolution

Database Developer

Database developers are skilled at writing SQL code, designing new systems, understanding front-end-users’ requirements and have a problem-solving attitude. The job requires a solid understanding of database troubleshooting and background with industry standards for database operations. They are responsible for developing and maintaining new servers with the correct database architecture. Employers look for practitioners with a strong SQL Server background and good communications kills. A bachelor’s degree in computer science or a related field is often sought, along with three or more years working as a database developer or a related role. Essential to the role are experience with major enterprise database programs, such as Microsoft SQL Server Integration Services, NoSQL databases, Big Data infrastructure, Hadoop or other Big Data engines, .Net Framework, JavaScript, HTML, PHP, and Oracle.

Typical duties include:

  • Developing database objects and structures for data storage, retrieval and reporting according to project data, integrity and security specifications
  • Assessing business rules and collaborating with peers to understand technical requirements, testing design and tuning for performance
  • Resolving problems and roadblocks in a timely manner and reliably following through on details and driving issues to a satisfactory conclusion for business users

Database Manager

Database managers are creative, analytical thinkers who prioritize customer needs and satisfaction and leverage that information to create customer solutions. They prioritize and handle multiple tasks independently and ensure data is properly coded, input and updated in the database. They are responsible for database planning, structure, documentation and protection, as well as long-range requirements and operational guidelines and protection. They formulate and monitor policies, procedures and standards and propose and implement enhancements that improve the performance and reliability of the system. Roles at this level typically require a bachelor’s degree and three or more years of relevant experience. Background in SQL tuning and optimization, UNIX based operating systems, and enterprise-level change management processes and procedures are helpful.

Typical duties include:

  • Creating and maintaining company database objectives across multiple hardware and environment types
  • Providing technical database expertise and problem-solving support to resolve system issues, assisting in the monitoring of database performance, and suggesting improvements
  • Initiating preventive and corrective measures to ensure all database servers and database designs meet or exceed processing requirements for performance and reliability

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Network Administrator

Network administrators need determination and strong problem-solving skills. They are relied upon for their expertise in network protocols, software and hardware involved in LAN/WAN operations. Network administrators develop, administer and maintain a stable network infrastructure to support the business by ensuring security, integrity and high-availability of enterprise systems and related components. They are called upon 24/7 during emergencies and are responsible for providing support with constantly changing software, hardware, network security programs and data storage systems. A commitment to overseeing ongoing staff education is critical. Five or more years of work experience is required, as well as professional certifications offered by Microsoft, Cisco and others.

Typical duties include:

  • Administering the operation of services related to all local area and wide area networks, following company policies and procedures
  • Administering control measures for LAN/WAN security, including antivirus and spam issues
  • Coordinating and implementing network software and hardware upgrades
  • Analyzing and fixing LAN/WAN performance and connectivity and related network issues

Network Architect

Network architects design networks and extensions to networks with an eye toward growth and security; they possess excellent technical problem-solving skills. Professionals in this role need extensive background in routing, switching, wireless and security, and system architecture (including scalability, reliability, performance and IP networking, design, planning and protocols). Experience designing solutions using high-availability, high-performance open source technologies is desired, as well as familiarity with both relational and NoSQL database systems in local area and wide area networks. Employers generally seek a bachelor’s degree in engineering or computer science, five or more years of experience working with network operating systems such as Cisco, advanced routing and switching, network security, and wireless networking with large-scale projects.

Typical duties include:

  • Assessing business and applications requirements for networks
  • Planning, designing and upgrading network installation projects
  • Working closely with the engineering team to define deployment architectures that meet performance and availability targets
  • Identifying and resolving networking issues with root cause analysis
  • Project management and technical guidance for business unit network projects

Network Engineer

Network engineers must be detail-oriented problem solvers with in-depth knowledge of networking hardware and software. A strong background in interfacing, security, internet protocols and server and network infrastructure is necessary. Network engineers use traditional and creative methods to ensure the stability and integrity of in-house voice, data, video and wireless network services. A bachelor’s degree in computer science or electrical engineering and five or more years of experience in areas such as network design and implementation, LAN/WAN interfacing, security, internet protocols and TCP/IP, and server and network infrastructure are typical job requirements. A professional certification, such as the Cisco CCNA, CCNP, or CCIE, also is highly desirable.

Typical duties include:

  • Planning, designing and developing local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs) across the organization
  • Participating in the installation, monitoring, maintenance, support and optimization of all network hardware, software and communication links
  • Analyzing and resolving network hardware and software problems in a timely and accurate fashion and providing end-user training
  • Maintaining a secure transfer of data to multiple locations via internal and external networks

Network Manager

Network managers direct and coordinate data and voice networking, management information systems, and staff. They are responsible for the configuration and maintenance of networking equipment, including switches, routers, firewalls and voice systems, and keeping IT support staff updated on tools and processes. Network managers need outstanding interpersonal, management, and oral and written communication skills, as well as excellent operational knowledge in Windows-based server management and workstation computing solutions. A bachelor's degree in a computer-related field, three or more years of successful network/server troubleshooting and experience managing technical personnel are preferred. Industry-recognized certifications are also valuable.

Typical duties include:

  • Directing day-to-day operations and maintenance of the firm’s networking technology
  • Collaborating with network engineers, architects and others on the analysis of network hardware and software requirements and contributing to the design of network integration
  • Providing reports to IT management regarding network system performance, utilization and compliance
  • Managing and mentoring a staff of network technicians

Network Operations Center (NOC) Technician

Network operations center (NOC) technicians are responsible for monitoring a company’s network systems. They are around-the-clock first responders for troubleshooting routers, switches and phone platforms. They need strong understanding of IP and/or optical networks and are adaptable and flexible in dealing with a variety of people. Strong problem-solving, communication and customer service skills are essential. Must have previous experience in NOC, and technical experience with programming, operating systems including Linux, network monitoring and performance tools may be required. A bachelor’s degree in information systems, computer science, computer engineering or a related field is preferred.

Typical duties include:

  • Monitoring CPU performance, networks, servers and applications
  • Efficiently and accurately managing any assigned trouble tickets and other projects to resolution
  • Escalating for higher-level support to Tier II, Tier III and management
  • Maintaining and repairing systems, such as server routing, firewalls, IP switching and remote access protocols
  • Providing accurate technical and customer service support and consistent customer communication
  • Managing coordination of vendor services, such as telecommunications and secure data storage

Telecommunications Manager

Telecommunications managers oversee all aspects of a telecommunications system, including installation, maintenance and troubleshooting. Managers should have an extensive background in telecommunications practice, including hands-on work with setting up servers, routers and modems and installing hardware and software. Professionals in this role are responsible for working with all departments within an organization — addressing individual and departmental concerns, troubleshooting, and targeting weak spots — to ensure that the overall system functions to its maximum potential. Employers generally seek a bachelor’s degree in or related to computer or information science, along with a minimum of five years of telecommunications experience, plus two or more years as a supervisor or manager.

Typical duties include:

  • Overseeing a team of analysts and technicians who support a firm’s telecommunications infrastructure
  • Managing the telecommunications budget and analyzing expenditures for cost containment
  • Evaluating equipment vendors, building relationships with service providers and coordinating equipment placement
  • Researching and making recommendations to IT management related to telecommunications systems upgrades, improvements and long-range strategy

Telecommunications Specialist

Telecommunications specialists create, install and maintain computer technology designed for the purposes of communication, including video and data systems. The role requires detailed understanding of telecommunications theory and practice, as well as solid technical, interpersonal and organization skills. Management experience in video and data communications is necessary, as is a commitment to providing the customer with reliable equipment, software and connectivity. Employers may seek an associate’s degree in electronics or a related field but are equally interested in several years of hands-on experience with communications equipment. Experience working with the specific hardware used in the company’s telecommunications system, as well as with cabling and transmission test equipment, is highly valued.

Typical duties include:

  • Providing overall management of voice, data and video equipment; supervision; and technical advice
  • Applying user requirements to technology
  • Developing, refining and complying with telecommunications systems planning
  • Installing and testing cabling
  • Investigating and resolving trouble ticket items and making necessary equipment repairs
  • Developing planning documentation, reviewing requests for communication services and coordinating resources

Wireless Network Engineer

Wireless network engineers design, configure and troubleshoot a company's wireless LAN and other wireless technologies. Candidates need strong analytical and problem-solving skills and practical experience in wireless equipment, standards, protocols and WLAN design. They provide support for customer and/or internal wireless LAN network operations, perform maintenance and security implementations, and collaborate with key team members to provide strategies for better systems performance. Employers usually seek a bachelor’s degree in engineering or computer science (or equivalent work experience), plus five or more years’ experience with enterprise-level wireless LAN support and technologies in a multivendor environment. Certifications such as the Certified Wireless Network Expert (CWNE), Certified Wireless Network Professional (CWNP) or Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert Wireless (CCIE Wireless) are also helpful.

Typical duties include:

  • Deploying, troubleshooting and maintaining wireless networks, including all engineering-specific and resource requirements for network hardware and software
  • Providing recommendations for network architecture and optimization for wireless and mobile technology
  • Documenting network infrastructure and design

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Computer Operator

Computer operators oversee and maintain computer systems and equipment and assist computer system users in resolving hardware and operating system problems. Computer operators need good analytical and troubleshooting skills. A strong customer service orientation is required, along with a willingness to work a flexible schedule. Candidates must have related experience in data processing, confidence with personal computer setup, and an understanding of computer systems and modern office procedures. Employers seek candidates who can adapt to changing technologies and learn functionality of new equipment and systems. College-level course work in computer science, data processing or a related field is valuable, although often less critical than several years of related work experience showing increasing responsibility in an operating system environment.

Typical duties include:

  • Operating and maintaining mainframe computer equipment and peripherals
  • Scheduling systems backups
  • Ensuring optimal system performance by performing backups and file maintenance activities
  • Troubleshooting computer hardware and software problems and making repairs
  • Maintaining logs and systems records according to departmental procedures

Mainframe Systems Programmer

Systems programmers lead all aspects of application development and programming, as well as system and program code modernization efforts. Candidates must have a strong background in mainframe computer programming languages and application development. They are integrally involved in assuring measures to safeguard company and client data, evaluating processes and applications to improve performance or fix bugs, and upgrading computer programs. Strong communication skills are required to assist end users with program objectives and operating procedures. Typical requirements include a bachelor’s degree in computer science or a related field plus three to five years of work experience in the development of complex systems in a mainframe environment. Additional work experience can sometimes be substituted for the educational requirement.

Typical duties include:

  • Converting project specifications into a sequence of detailed instructions and logical steps for coding mainframe computer applications
  • Installing, testing and debugging applications and monitoring systems after implementation
  • Training users on programs and providing technical assistance with enhanced programs with other technical team members

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Quality assurance (QA) and testing

QA Associate/Analyst

QA associates/analysts create test cases to locate errors in internal software applications, provide accurate documentation and make recommendations on how to improve applications. The position requires excellent critical thinking and oral and written communication skills. A background in quality assurance, manual testing, automation testing and industry reporting standards is necessary. A bachelor’s degree in computer science or a related discipline combined with several years of experience in a QA environment are typical requirements, although work experience can sometimes be substituted for formal education.

Typical duties include:

  • Developing, documenting and maintaining software test plans, test data and data validation
  • Executing and evaluating manual or automated test cases to make sure objectives are met
  • Reporting test results and facilitating test plan/case reviews with technical team members
  • Identifying and facilitating issue resolution with functional and technical groups
  • Ensuring that every aspect of the software solution is tested and that any potential bugs are identified and fixed prior to delivery to the client

QA Engineer — Automated

Automated QA engineers plan and develop automated test suites for software products. They use and develop new tools to test products and improve engineering processes. These professionals lead QA efforts through defining, developing, executing and documenting automated test plans and cases and report problems to the technical team. They work with developers to make verification processes and testing more efficient. Employers look for extensive knowledge in at least one automated testing framework and excellent oral and written communication skills. Candidates have experience performing usability testing and a strong understanding of the software development life cycle. The position frequently requires a bachelor’s degree in engineering or a related technical field or at least three years of industry experience in software QA, including automated testing and/or software development.

Typical duties include:

  • Leading QA efforts within a software development group
  • Working closely with development teams and stakeholders performing QA activities
  • Testing high-volume, web-based applications
  • Defining, developing, executing and documenting automated test plans and test cases
  • Developing automated test scripts with a variety of testing tools

QA Engineer — Manual

Manual QA engineers define the scope and objectives of various levels of QA testing. They also write and maintain test automation, publish test results, develop QA standards, and define and track QA metrics. Manual QA engineers should be highly knowledgeable about QA principles and procedures and able to define, write and maintain test automation. They must have excellent coding and software design skills, the ability to write clear and concise bug reports, and passion for discovering and learning new things. A mobile software background, experience with manual testing of native iOS and Android apps, and strong documentation abilities are a plus. Employers often require a bachelor’s degree in computer science or engineering and may seek candidates with experience in a particular industry.

Typical duties include:

  • Developing test plans and executing test cases for assigned features
  • Reporting and tracking software defects and areas that require improvement
  • Determining and developing approaches to problems
  • Writing, maintaining and publishing product specifications and test results
  • Developing QA standards and defining and tracking QA metrics

QA/Testing Manager

QA/testing managers have an extensive background in assurance methodologies and procedures; a good understanding of application development and database technologies; and excellent written and oral communication, problem-solving, organizational, and presentation skills. Employers typically look for six or more years of experience in developing test artifacts; writing test plans; and designing, developing, and maintaining test scenarios and test cases. Several years of technical managerial experience and a bachelor’s degree in information systems, computer science or a related field are also typically required.

Typical duties include:

  • Managing a group of QA analysts/testers and directing their work
  • Developing test automation guidelines and implementing automated solutions to improve testing efficiency
  • Leading QA for multiple products and client implementations simultaneously
  • Reviewing software requirements and developing test plans, test scripts and acceptance criteria for all testing phases
  • Preparing budgets, staffing plans and recommendations
  • Collaborating with development teams and other QA resources to ensure the quality of the deliverables

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Data Security Analyst

Data security analysts must possess a thorough understanding of all aspects of computer and network security, including such areas as firewall administration, encryption technologies and network protocols. They manage, deploy, maintain and optimize software applications and must be skilled in Windows operating systems and common PC applications, including but not limited to Microsoft Office Suite. Analysts need strong analytical, problem-solving, and oral and written communication skills, as well as excellent judgment and self-motivation. Successful candidates stay up to date with government regulations and industry security trends and developments. Employers generally seek a bachelor’s degree in a computer-related field, along with at least three years of practical data security experience. A professional certification such as the Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) designation is also a valuable asset.

Typical duties include:

  • Performing security audits and risk assessments and analyses
  • Making recommendations for enhancing data systems security
  • Researching attempted breaches of data security and rectifying security weaknesses
  • Formulating security policies and procedures

Information Systems Security Manager

The information systems security manager must be knowledgeable of information technology security principles, as well as common office technology tools. Candidates ensure routine system reviews are conducted on assigned systems. The position requires multitasking and excellent customer service, communication and organizational skills. It is important that candidates keep abreast of industry security trends and developments, as well as applicable government regulations. Employers normally seek a bachelor’s degree in information systems or an equivalent combination of education and experience, along with five or more years of systems and network security experience. One or more years of managerial experience may also be required. Industry certifications, such as the Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) or the CompTIA Security+, are also commonly sought by employers.

Typical duties include:

  • Providing leadership, guidance and training to information systems security personnel
  • Reviewing, implementing, updating and documenting companywide information security policies and procedures
  • Managing security audits and vulnerability and threat assessments, and directing responses to network or system intrusions
  • Ensuring fulfillment of legal and contractual information security and privacy mandates, including providing executive management with compliance reports and audit findings
  • Preventing and detecting intrusion

Network Security Administrator

Network security administrators are responsible for installing, administering and troubleshooting an organization’s security solutions. The role requires a strong technical background, including working knowledge of network management protocols, networking architecture, authentication practices and security administration. Candidates integrate and implement network designs by evaluating business strategies and requirements, researching network security standards, and identifying integration issues. Excellent communication skills and experience with virtual network environments, datacenter and WAN networking technologies, and network security technologies from other providers is preferred. Employers typically seek a bachelor’s degree in a technical field, along with three to six years of relevant experience.

Typical duties include:

  • Implementing network security policies and procedures
  • Administering and maintaining firewalls
  • Managing, monitoring and updating malware prevention systems
  • Monitoring security advisory groups to ensure all necessary network security updates, patches and preventive measures are in place
  • Preventing and detecting intrusion
  • Performing intrusion detection analysis

Network Security Engineer

Network security engineers are responsible for the implementation; maintenance; and integration of the corporate WAN, LAN and server architecture. This individual is also responsible for implementation and administration of network security hardware and software, enforcing the network security policy and complying with requirements of external security audits and recommendations. They must be able to translate security policies and procedures into technical architectures and possess strong working knowledge of data and network security technologies. At least five years of experience installing, monitoring and maintaining network security solutions is typically desired. A four-year college degree in a technical field and a Cisco or other security-related certification may also be required.

Typical duties include:

  • Performing analysis of network security needs and helping with the design, integration, and installation of hardware and software
  • Analyzing, troubleshooting and correcting network problems and formulating action plans
  • Maintaining and administering perimeter security systems, such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems, and conducting post-deployment monitoring and testing

Systems Security Administrator

Systems security administrators maintain and support existing business system applications. They must demonstrate technical knowledge of data systems security procedures and familiarity with systems hardware and software. Candidates should have good communication skills and the ability to work well in a team setting. It is important that candidates keep abreast of industry security trends and developments, as well as applicable government regulations. A bachelor’s degree in computer science or a related field, plus several years of computer systems and security-related experience are typical requirements for the job, although relevant work experience can sometimes be substituted for a four-year degree.

Typical duties include:

  • Monitoring systems security and responding to security incidents
  • Participating in security systems testing; documenting failures and corrective action taken
  • Reporting anomalies with systems and monitoring database uptime
  • Ensuring integrity and confidentiality of sensitive data
  • Preventing and detecting intrusion

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Software development

Product Manager

Product managers need a blend of business and marketing talent combined with technical knowledge. They should have excellent communication skills, including the ability to deal effectively with both technical staff and business/sales professionals, as well as a capacity for seeing the big picture in terms of the product life cycle. Requirements include a bachelor’s degree in computer science or business, plus five or more years of experience in software product management. For some positions, an MBA is highly desirable.

Typical duties include:

  • Coordinating work with software engineers and developers to define product requirements
  • Working with sales and marketing to define customer needs, market potential, competitive analysis and marketing strategy
  • Writing product information materials to brief sales personnel on product features and benefits
  • Assisting with trade show presentations of the product

Software Developer

Software developers play a key role in the design, installation, testing and maintenance of software systems. They are often involved with writing and coding programs or modifying third-party software to suit a business’ needs. They need to be detail-oriented and have excellent problem-solving and analytical abilities. They should have good communication skills and be able to work independently and as part of a development team. Employers normally require a bachelor’s degree in computer science or a similar field but may accept a two-year technical degree if combined with several years of practical experience. Equally important are programming skills in languages and frameworks such as C#/C++, HTML, Java/Java Enterprise Edition, Microsoft .NET and SQL Server. A minimum of two to three years of programming experience is a typical requirement. Complex projects may call for additional years of demonstrated achievement.

Typical duties include:

  • Coding, testing and debugging programs according to computer engineering specifications
  • Modifying, expanding and updating applications
  • Communicating with a team that includes analysts, engineers and quality assurance testers in order to coordinate and document application development and testing
  • Developing software prototypes

Software Engineer

Candidates for a software engineer position should have broad information systems experience and strong critical thinking and problem-solving skills. They should be adept at programming and working in a team environment and possess excellent communication skills. They’re expected to quickly produce well-organized, optimized and documented source code. Most jobs require a minimum of a bachelor’s degree in computer science, electrical engineering, computer engineering or a related discipline. Several years’ experience in specific programming languages, such as C#/C++, Java or .NET, depending on what the employer is using, also is valuable.

Typical duties include:

  • Designing and creating engineering specifications for software programs and applications
  • Working with quality assurance to develop software test plans
  • Collaborating with hardware engineers to assess and test hardware and software interaction
  • Implementing a specific development methodology
  • Documenting software specifications

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Technical services, help desk and technical support

Business Continuity Analyst

Business continuity analysts collaborate with business managers, business continuity leads/teams and infrastructure teams to identify the operations, processes and technologies required in building and maintaining optimal continuity plans. They ensure operationally effective and compliant programs are developed and in place to ensure recovery of the business. Candidates need excellent analytical, organizational, communication and documentation skills. A background in project management and/or business or systems analysis and in-depth knowledge of a business sector such as finance or securities are considered ideal. Employers typically seek five or more years of experience in IT-related positions, along with several years of business continuity planning experience. A minimum of a bachelor’s degree in computer science or a related field is a standard educational requirement.

Typical duties include:

  • Analyzing critical business functions and defining the scope and impact of disaster scenarios
  • Designing, planning and implementing an enterprise-wide business continuity plan
  • Analyzing existing systems and recommending redundant, fault-tolerant solutions to ensure business continuity and duplication of all critical data
  • Devising, scheduling and implementing business continuity tests and analyzing results
  • Documenting business continuity procedures and making presentations and recommendations to senior management
  • Ensuring that the firm and its data systems are in compliance with regulations such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act in the United States or Multilateral Instrument 52-109 in Canada

Cable Technician

Candidates for cable technicians are responsible for implementing and maintaining cabling for an organization, including video surveillance, access systems, alarm systems, networks, and more. They need to be detail oriented and possess strong problem-solving skills.

Typical duties include:

  • Maintaining video surveillance, access control, door entry systems, fire alarm communicators, alarm systems and networks (radios, switches, routers and firewalls)
  • Installing new cable projects
  • Testing, modifying and fixing cable projects for issues that may arise

Desktop Support Analyst

Candidates for a desktop support analyst position should have extensive experience with desktop hardware, software applications, operating systems and network connectivity. They must be customer service-oriented and proactive in anticipating and resolving problems while maximizing efficient use of computing resources. A bachelor’s degree in a computer-related field and three to five years of experience installing and supporting PC and laptop hardware and software are standard requirements, although some employers are willing to substitute work experience for formal education. Additional requirements may include professional certifications from entities such as HDI (Desktop Support Technician or Support Center Analyst), CompTIA or Microsoft (Microsoft Certified IT Professional or Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator).

Typical duties include:

  • Maintaining an inventory of installed software, managing software licensing, and creating policies and procedures for upgrades
  • Working with hardware and software vendors to verify timely product delivery and ensuring that new equipment is installed and ready to operate on schedule
  • Analyzing and making recommendations for hardware and software standardization
  • Creating user accounts and managing access control based on company policies

Hardware Analyst

A hardware analyst evaluates existing and future IT infrastructure needs within a company. They assess benefits and expenses to make informed recommendations on hardware updates and installations. They also maintain, repair, upgrade and install computer hardware. Hardware analysts need excellent analysis and customer service skills, and the position requires a strong technical background and knowledge of hardware technology and trends. A bachelor’s degree in computer science or related field is preferred.

Typical duties include:

  • Evaluating current computer hardware to make recommendations to leadership about upgrades and installations for the company
  • Maintaining, repairing, upgrading and installing hardware
  • Training employees to use new hardware
  • Monitoring hardware for performance and security and assisting users with issues

Help Desk (Tiers 1, 2 and 3)

All help desk personnel need excellent problem-solving, communication and interpersonal skills, along with patience, a customer-friendly attitude and the ability to work in a team environment. In addition, they should have a strong technical understanding of the various hardware, software and networking systems they support. Employer requirements depend on the help desk position level.

  • Tier I an entry-level position, normally requires less than two years of work experience and may require an associate’s degree or completion of coursework at a technical school.
  • Tier II positions typically require two to four years of work experience and may require a bachelor’s degree or a two-year degree and additional, equivalent work experience in a help desk setting.
  • Tier III positions often require four or more years of help desk experience, a bachelor’s degree in computer science or a related field, and/or professional certifications, such as HDI’s Customer Service Representative or Support Center Analyst or the Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE) designation.

Typical duties include:

Tier 1

  • Taking initial telephone or email inquiries and troubleshooting and managing relatively simple hardware, software or network problems
  • Recognizing and escalating more difficult problems to Tier II support
  • Logging call activity

Tier 2

  • Resolving more complex issues requiring detailed systems and applications knowledge; these issues have been escalated from Tier I
  • Deciding whether to generate a trouble or work order ticket for issues that will require a visit to the user’s PC or workstation

Tier 3

  • Researching and resolving the most difficult and complex problems that other help desk levels have been unable to resolve
  • Analyzing and identifying trends in issue reporting and devising preventive solutions
  • Mentoring other help desk personnel on hardware and software problem analysis and resolution


Candidates for an instructor/trainer position require a combination of in-depth subject-matter expertise and excellent communication and presentation skills. They must be able to explain difficult technical material clearly and patiently to students with varying levels of proficiency. Candidates should be outgoing and comfortable working with diverse groups of people while maintaining professionalism at all times. A bachelor’s degree in a related subject area may be preferred by some employers. Breadth of technical knowledge and at least one year of training experience also are required. Certification, such as a Microsoft Certified Trainer (MCT) designation, can also be useful.

Typical duties include:

  • Determining training objectives and developing a course curriculum
  • Creating course materials, handouts, instructional aids, audio/visual materials and similar teaching aids
  • Conducting classroom training
  • Testing and evaluating student performance


Managers of technical support services need extensive experience with supported software and hardware, as well as excellent interpersonal, business management and customer service skills. Candidates must possess knowledge of the TCP/IP protocol families and LAN/WAN technologies. The position also requires strong leadership skills. Employers typically seek a bachelor’s degree in information systems or a related discipline, with at least five years of operations and support experience plus three or more years in a managerial role. Professional certifications, such as the Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE) or HDI’s Support Center Manager certification, or experience with the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) also are valuable.

Typical duties include:

  • Managing the daily operations of a firm’s help desk and support services
  • Managing staff, including hiring, training, scheduling work assignments and conducting evaluations
  • Monitoring response times, evaluating user satisfaction levels and making recommendations for improvement
  • Evaluating and managing technical support systems hardware and software and making recommendations regarding upgrades or changes
  • Negotiating, writing and reporting on internal and external service-level agreements

Mobile Device Support Analyst

Candidates for mobile device support analyst positions need to have strong customer service and communication skills. This professional assists mobile users with any issues they may have with a mobile device or app. Must be familiar with operating systems software and applications for mobile devices and possess a bachelor’s degree in computer science, information systems or related field. Technical knowledge and experience in customer service is preferred.

Typical duties include:

  • Replying to inquiries and assisting users with issues on mobile devices and mobile apps
  • Troubleshooting any issues that may arise and help solve the problem
  • Monitoring and reporting any security violation or problem
  • Analyzing current and future mobile hardware and software and making recommendations for new technology

PC Technician

PC technicians need excellent problem-solving and customer service skills, as well as thorough knowledge of PC hardware, software and network connections. Employers look for relevant training, which may include an associate’s degree or completion of coursework through a technical school, as well as hands-on experience working with PC hardware and software. One to five years of previous experience may be required, depending on the complexity of the position. Professional certifications, such as the CompTIA IT Technician or Microsoft Certified IT Professional designation, also provide important skills validation and may be required.

Typical duties include:

  • Installing, configuring and maintaining desktop and laptop PCs and peripherals such as printers
  • Installing and configuring application and operating system software and upgrades
  • Troubleshooting and repairing hardware and network connectivity issues
  • Removing old equipment and performing data migration to new machines

Product Support Specialist

Product support specialists must have strong customer service, problem-solving and communication skills. This position assists users with issues and concerns regarding a company’s products, offering software and technical support and resolving problems. Previous experience in customer and/or technical support may be preferred. Candidates will engage in moderate system design and architecture, building and improving upon current automation. A bachelor’s degree is preferred as well as five or more years of prior relevant experience.

Typical duties include:

  • Providing technical and customer service support for a company’s products
  • Assisting users with product issues and concerns and communicating steps to resolve problems
  • Identifying and analyzing problems with software and hardware, including failures, bugs and system issues
  • Reporting issues and user concerns to leadership

Systems Administrator

Systems administrators should possess strong problem-solving, analytical and communication skills, in addition to in-depth technical knowledge of the employer’s systems hardware and software. Employer requirements vary depending on system complexity, the types of operating and network systems being supported, and the size of the organization. Though some employers require a bachelor’s degree in computer science or a related field, others may accept an associate’s degree or technical training certificate. Three to five years of experience working with the specific types of hardware and software systems used by the company are generally required. Professional certifications such as the Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator (MCSA), Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE) or Sun Certified System Administrator (SCSA) may be commonly sought by employers.

Typical duties include:

  • Installing operating system software, patches and upgrades
  • Analyzing, troubleshooting and resolving system hardware, software and networking issues
  • Configuring, optimizing, fine-tuning and monitoring operating system software and servers
  • Performing system backups and recovery
  • Conducting server builds

Systems Engineer

In addition to in-depth technical knowledge of the employer’s software and hardware, systems engineers need advanced analytical, troubleshooting and design skills. The ability to communicate with technical and nontechnical users also is essential. Employers may require extensive knowledge of the development process, including specific documentation and quality assurance. Because of the broad range of demands that systems engineers must meet, candidates who have demonstrated strong project planning skills often have an advantage. Employers generally prefer candidates with five or more years of experience working with the specific hardware and software systems used by the company, as well as a bachelor’s degree or equivalent experience.

Typical duties include:

  • Developing, maintaining and supporting technical infrastructure, hardware and system software components
  • Performing installation, maintenance and support of system software/hardware and user support
  • Configuring, debugging and supporting multiple infrastructure platforms
  • Performing high-level root-cause analysis for service interruption recovery and creating preventive measures

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Web development

E-Commerce Analyst

E-commerce analysts must possess a strong background in internet technologies, along with excellent communication, interpersonal, analytical and problem-solving skills. They also should be familiar with business and marketing concepts and be comfortable making recommendations based on strong attention to detail and strategic thinking. Employers typically seek a bachelor’s degree in business, computer science, marketing, economics or a related field of study, plus a minimum of three years of professional IT experience, including work in web-related functions.

Typical duties include:

  • Analyzing business and user requirements and making recommendations regarding the design and development of web-based e-commerce solutions
  • Coordinating work with web designers and other technical specialists for the implementation of e-commerce websites
  • Training and mentoring colleagues on internet strategy and best practices
  • Testing and evaluating e-commerce site performance and monitoring site analytics

Front-End Web Developer

Front-end web developers create web- and mobile-based applications and work on website maintenance and enhancements. Front-end developers code, design and edit layout and functionality of websites. Strong technical, creative and communication skills are needed for this role. Experience with CSS preprocessors like Sass and JavaScript is necessary, and knowledge of libraries, like jQuery, is typically preferred.

Typical duties include:

  • Creating web- and mobile-based applications
  • Managing website maintenance and enhancements
  • Coding, designing and editing the layout and functionality of websites

Senior Web Developer

Companies hiring senior web developers seek individuals with extensive experience in all phases of the web application development life cycle, as well as an excellent understanding of customer needs and business strategy. Candidates should have expertise in the development of multiplatform, distributed applications and object-oriented programming. In addition, they should be adept at working in a team environment and mentoring junior colleagues. Sample code and web links to sample work are often requested. Employers normally seek a bachelor’s degree in computer science, electrical engineering or a related field, plus a minimum of five years of experience working with a mix of web technologies, such as AJAX, Adobe Flash, JavaScript, SOAP and HTML/DHTML.

Typical duties include:

  • Providing creative vision and managing the planning and implementation of web-based applications
  • Coordinating and communicating cross-functional activities among product development, marketing, product management and other teams in bringing new applications online
  • Diagnosing and fixing bugs found by quality assurance testers
  • Overseeing application coding and providing technical expertise and mentoring to other developers
  • Increasing online exposure through search engine optimization best practices

Web Administrator

Candidates for web administrator positions need a thorough understanding of web technology and the internet. They should be experienced in working with firewalls, intranets, domain name services, servers, and the related hardware and software required to administer a website. Familiarity with web services, TCP/IP, FTP, HTTP and HTTPS, LDAP, and similar internet protocols is also required. A bachelor’s degree in a computer-related field and at least two to three years of experience in a web administration role are standard requirements, although additional experience in web-related positions may sometimes be substituted for formal education. In addition, web administrators should have excellent communication and customer service skills and the ability to work well in a team environment.

Typical duties include:

  • Installing, customizing, updating and maintaining internal and external web pages and sites
  • Creating and analyzing reports on web activity, number of hits, traffic patterns and similar performance metrics
  • Monitoring customer feedback and responding to inquiries
  • Recommending network, server and related equipment and software upgrades and improvements

Web Designer

Web designers must be creative and possess excellent design and conceptual skills in combination with in-depth knowledge of the technology and software used to create web pages. They need to be familiar with HTML, XML, JSP, CSS, PHP, AJAX, and similar web languages and platforms, as well as the following Adobe web page and design software, including Photoshop, Illustrator, Acrobat, Dreamweaver and Flash. The ability to multitask and adapt to changing priorities and new technologies is also essential. Employers may require a bachelor’s degree in fine arts, graphic design or communications, but often are more interested in three or more years of design and production experience and a strong portfolio of web designs.

Typical duties include:

  • Working with design teams, marketing staff and developers to create a consistent and compelling visual style for a company’s website
  • Designing and formatting web pages
  • Testing and troubleshooting web page features
  • Creating artwork to appear on web pages

Web Developer

Web developers should have in-depth knowledge of internet protocols and applications, in addition to a solid understanding of business strategy. They need strong communication skills and the ability to work both individually and as part of a team. Employers typically seek individuals with a bachelor’s degree in computer science or a related field, plus several years of web-related experience. Work experience can sometimes be substituted for the educational requirement. Sample code and web links to sample work are often requested. Candidates should be well-versed in web technologies and tools, such as AJAX, ColdFusion, JavaScript, SOAP, HTML/DHTML, LAMP and others.

Typical duties include:

  • Gathering business requirements and developing specifications for web-based applications
  • Providing technical assistance to web administrators
  • Integrating websites with back-end systems such as databases
  • Writing test plans and test results

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